The parasites of the animals in the Greece

By S. Th. Haralabidis, DVM, former Prof.
of Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases, Vet.Med.Faculty, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece (

In Greece, there are more than 640.000 cattle, 9.500.000 sheep, 5.450.000 goats, 1.070.000 pigs, 38.000 horses, 45.000 mules, 100.000 donkeys and other animals. Furthermore, there are more than 500.000 domesticated dogs and an unknown number of ownerless dogs, and/or of domesticated and ownerless cats.

More than 77 parasitic diseases are found in the animals in Greece and 67 of them are met also in humans.

The parasites that have been found in the animals in the Greece are:



Eimeria spp. (sheep 52.5-89.2%, goat 53-100%, cattle 1-17.8%, deer, wild goat)

Cryptosporidium spp. (sheep 19.5-32%, cattle 35%, goat, deer, wild goat)

Giardia lamblia (sheep, goat, deer, wild goat)

Tritrichomonas spp. (sheep, cattle)

Tetratrichomonas spp. (sheep, cattle)

Entamoeba bovis (sheep, goat, cattle, wild goat)

Buxtonella sulcata (cattle)

Tritrichomonas foetus (cattle)

Toxoplasma gondii (sheep 22.7-58.5%, goat 14.4-26.4%, cattle 39.7%)

Neospora caninum (sheep 15%, goat 20%, cattle 18%)

Sarcocystis spp. (buffalo 65%, sheep 18-20%, goat 20%, cattle 9%)

Sarcocystis bovifelis (cattle 9%)

Sarcocystis bovicanis (cattle 8%)

Sarcocystis bovihominis (cattle 7%)

Sarcocystis ovicanis (sheep 5-100%)

Sarcocystis arieticanis (sheep 5%)

Sarcocystis hircicanis (goat 10%)

Babesia bovis (cattle)

Babesia bigemina (cattle)

Babesia spp. (sheep, goat)

Theileria annulata (cattle)

Theileria mutans (cattle)

Theileria ovis (sheep)

Theileria hirci (goat)


Fasciola hepatica (sheep, goat, cattle, deer, wild goat)

Dicrocoelium dendtriticum (sheep, goat, cattle, wild goat)

Paramphistomum cervi (sheep, goat, cattle)

Schistosoma mattheei (goat)

Schistosoma bovis (cattle)


Moniezia expansa (lamb, kid, musk)

Moniezia benedeni (sheep)

Moniezia spp. (goat 32%, sheep 17.7%)

Avitellina centripunctata (sheep, goat, cattle)

Stilezia globipunctata (sheep, goat, cattle)

Cysticercus bovis (cattle 0.1%)

Cysticercus tenuicollis (sheep, goat, cattle)

Cysticercus ovis (sheep)

Coenurus cerebralis (sheep)

Hydatid cysts (sheep 0.13-100%, cattle 0.23-56.6%, goat 0.05-15.4%)


Gongylonema pulchrum (cattle, sheep, goat)

Haemonchus contortus (sheep 10.1%, goat 18.3%)

Haemonchus placei (cattle)

Ostertagia ostertagi (cattle)

Teladorsagia circumcincta (sheep, 70.5%, goat 66.7%)

Trichostrongylus spp. (sheep 12.4%, goat 4.2%, cattle)

Cooperia spp. (cattle, sheep 1.6%, goat 1%)

Nematodirus spp. (goat 1%, sheep, cattle)

Neoascaris vitulorum (cattle 2.4%)

Strongyloides papillosus (cattle, sheep, goat)

Bunostomum trigonocephalum (sheep, goat)

Bunostomum phlebotomum (cattle)

Capillaria bovis (goat)

Oesophagostomum spp. (sheep 0.5%, goat 1.1%)

Oesophagostomum radiatum (cattle)

Chabertia ovina (sheep 4.9%, goat 8.7%)

Trichuris spp. (goat, sheep, cattle)

Skrjabinema ovis (goat)

Dictyocaulus filaria (sheep 5.8%)

Dictyocaulus viviparus (cattle)

Protostrongylus rufescens (sheep 0.2%, goat 2.8%)

Cystocaulus ocreatus (sheep 41.7%, goat 64%)

Muellerius capillaris (sheep 21.3%, goat 31.8%)

Neostrongylus linearis (sheep 31%, goat 1.4%)

Thelazia rhodesii (cattle 16.5%)

Setaria cervi (cattle 1.6%)


Limnatis nilotica (sheep, goat, cattle)

Hirudo medicinalis (sheep, goat, cattle)


Linguatula serrata (sheep, goat, cattle)



Demodex spp. (sheep 24.7%, goat 22.2%, cattle)

Sarcoptes spp. (sheep, goat, cattle)

Psoroptes spp. (sheep, cattle)

Chorioptes spp. (sheep, goat, cattle)


Ixodes ricinus (cattle, goat, sheep)

Ixodes gibbosus (cattle, goat 25.6%, sheep)

Hyalomma marginatum marginatum (cattle, goat, sheep)

Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum (cattle, goat, sheep)

Hyalomma detritum scupense (cattle)

Hyalomma detritum detritum (cattle)

Hyalomma aegyptium (cattle)

Haemaphysalis inermis (cattle, goat, sheep)

Haemaphysalis cinnabarina punctata (cattle, goat, sheep)

Haemaphysalis sulcata (cattle, goat, sheep)

Haemaphysalis parva (cattle, goat, sheep)

Boophilus annulatus (cattle)

Rhipicephalus bursa (cattle, goat 6%, sheep)

Rhipicephalus turanicus (cattle, goat, sheep)

Rhipicephalus sanguineus (cattle, goat, sheep)

Dermacentor marginatus (cattle, goat 1%, sheep)

Dermacentor reticulatus (cattle)

Amblyomma variegatum (goat)


Damalinia bovis (cattle)

Damalinia ovis (sheep)

Damalinia caprae (goat)

Holacarticos crassipes (goat)

Haematopinus eurysternus (cattle)

Linognathus vituli (cattle)

Solenopotes capillatus (cattle)

Linognathus ovillus (sheep)

Linognathus pedalis (sheep)

Linognathus stenopsis (sheep, goat)

Linognathus africanus (sheep, goat)

Culicidae (sheep, goat, cattle)

Psychodidae (sheep, goat, cattle)

Simuliidae (sheep, goat, cattle)

Ceratopogonidae (sheep, goat, cattle)

Tabanidae (cattle)

Stomoxys calcitrans (sheep, goat, cattle)

Haematobia irritans (cattle)

Haematobia stimulans (cattle)

Hippobosca spp. (cattle)

Melophagus ovinus (sheep)

Lipoptena capreoli (goat)

Ctenocephalides spp. (sheep, goat, cattle)

Spilopsyllus spp. (sheep, goat, cattle)

Xenopsylla spp. (sheep, goat, cattle)

Ceratophyllus spp. (sheep, goat, cattle)

Musca spp. (sheep, goat, cattle)

Hydrotaea irritans (sheep, goat, cattle)

Wohlfahrtia magnifica (sheep, goat, cattle

Sarcophaga spp. (sheep, goat, cattle)

Calliphora spp. (sheep, goat, cattle)

Lucilia spp. (sheep, goat, cattle)

Chrysomyia bezziana (sheep, goat, cattle)

Muscina spp. (sheep, goat, cattle)

Oestrus ovis (nose bot fly, sheep 20-53%, goat 16%)

Hypoderma spp. (cattle grubs, cattle 0.7-78.8%)

Przhevalskiana silenus (goat 50-95%)


Horse, donkey, mule


Giardia lamblia (horse 3.1%)

Eimeria leuckarti (horse 3.1%, donkey)

Cryptosporidium (horse, donkey)

Trypanosoma brucei equiperdum) (horse, until 1950)

Babesia caballi (horse)

Babesia equi (horse)

Toxoplasma gondii (horse)

Neospora caninum (horse)

Sarcocystis equicanis (horse)


Fasciola hepatica (horse)

Dicrocoelium dendtriticum (horse 0.5%)


Anoplocephala perfoliata (horse 0.5%)


Habronema muscae (horse 5.5%)

Habronema .megastoma (horse 3%)

Strongyloides westeri (horse 3%)

Parascaris equorum (horse 1.8-6%)

Strongylus spp. (horse 42.5-95.2%, donkey 73%, mule 89.2%)

Strongylidae & Trichonematidae (horse 45.6%, donkey 37.8%, mule 89.2%)

Oxyuris equi (horse 4%, mule 8.7%)

Probstmayria vivipara (horse)

Dictyocaulus arnfieldi (horse 0.9%, donkey 2.7%)

Trichinella spiralis (horse 1.4%)

Parafilaria multipapillosa (horse)

Setaria equina (horse 0.54-2%)

Onchocerca cervicalis (horse)

Onchocerca reticulata (horse)


Limnatis nilotica (horse)

Hirudo medicinalis (horse)



Demodex equi (horse)

Psoroptes equi (horse)

Chorioptes bovis (horse)

Sarcoptes equi (horse)


Hyalomma marginatum marginatum (horse)

Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum (horse)

Hyalomma detritum scupense (horse)

Haemaphysalis inermis (horse)

Haemaphysalis cinnabarina punctata (horse)

Haemaphysalis sulcata (horse)

Dermacentor marginatus (horse)

Dermacentor reticulatus (horse)


Damalinia equi (horse)

Haematopinus asini (horse, donkey)

Culicidae, mosquitoes, horse, donkey)

Psychodidae (sandflies, horse, donkey)

Simuliidae (black flies, horse, donkey)

Ceratopogonidae (biting midges, horse)

Tabanidae, horse flies, horse)

Stomoxys calcitrans (stable fly, horse, donkey)

Hippobosca spp., forest flies, horse, donkey)

Ctenocephalides spp. (fleas, horse, donkey)

Musca domestica (house fly, horse, donkey, mule)

Musca autumnalis (face fly, horse, donkey, mule)

Hydrotaea spp. (head fly, horse, donkey)

Haematobia spp. (pasture flies, horse, donkey, mule)

Wohlfahrtia magnifica (horse, donkey, mule)

Sarcophaga spp. (flesh flies, horse, donkey, mule)

Calliphora spp. (blowflies, horse, donkey, mule)

Gasterophilus spp. (horse, donkey, mule)



Eimeria spp. (pig 5-63.8%)

Cryptosporidium spp. (pig)

Blastocystis spp. (pig)

Entamoeba bovis (pig)

Balantidium coli (pig)

Toxoplasma gondii (pig)

Sarcocystis suicanis (pig 1%)

Sarcocystis spp. (pig 4%)


Fasciola hepatica (pig)

Dicrocoelium dendriticum (pig)

Brachylaemus suis (pig 3.2%)

Echinochasmus perfoliatus (pig 0.8%)


Cysticercus cellulosae (pig 0.03%)

Cysticercus tenuicollis (pig)

Hydatid cysts (pig 0.01-9.3%)


Gongylonema pulchrum (pig)

Ascarops strongylina (pig 11.4%)

Physocephalus sexalatus (pig 17-20.3%)

Ascaris suum (pig)

Trichostrongylus colubriformis (pig 14.6%)

Strongyloides ransomi (pig 9.7%)

Globocephalus longemucronatus (pig)

Globocephalus urosubulatus (pig 14.6%)

Oesophagostomum dentatum (pig 32.5%)

Oesophagostomum quadrispinulatum syn. Ο.longicaudatum (pig 1.6%)

Trichuris (syn. Trichocephalus) suis (pig 7.5%)

Metastrongylus apri syn. M.elongates (pig 43.1%)

Metastrongylus pudendotectus (pig 8.1%)

Trichinella spiralis (pig 0.02-2.2%)


Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (pig 2.5-3.2%)


Limnatis nilotica (pig, wild pig)

Hirudo medicinalis (pig, wild pig)



Sarcoptes suis (pig 58.5%, wild pig)

Demodex suis (pig 9.6-34%, wild pig)


Dermacentor marginatus (pig)


Haematopinus suis (pig, wild pig)



Giardia lamblia (cat 3.4%, dog 0.2-5%)

Isospora canis (dog 3.2%)

Isospora ohioensis/burrowsi (dog 2-3.9%)

Isospora rivolta (dog 1.1-18.6%, cat 6.3%)

Isospora felis (cat 8.6-18%)

Isospora spp. (cat 29.2%)

Cryptosporidium spp. (dog 0.4%, cat, fox, wolf, mink)

Toxoplasma gondii (cat 0.9%, dog 2.3-44.7%)

Neospora caninum (dog 10%, cat 4.2%)

Hammondia heydorni (dog 0.5-0.8%)

Sarcocystis bovicanis (dog 1.3%)

Sarcocystis spp. (dog 1.2-6.4%)

Leishmania infantum (dog 0.7-48.7%, cat 3.9%)

Hepatozoon canis (dog 0.4-3.3%)

Babesia spp. (dog 8%)


Heterophyes heterophyes (dog 15.6%, cat 5.7%)

Phagicola longa (dog 13.4%, cat 0.8%)

Cryptocotyle concave (dog 1.1%)

Stictodora sawakinensis (dog 1.6%)

Stellantchasmus pseudocirratus (dog 0.5%)

Echinochasmus perfoliatus (dog 1.6%)

Alaria alata (fox 1.6%, jackal)

Opisthorchis felineus (cat 0.8%, dog)

Metorchis albidus (cat 0.8-1.7%)


Spirometra mansoni syn. Ligula intestinalis (fox 0.3%)

Mesocestoides lineatus (dog 1.6%, fox 73.6%, wolf, jackal, cat)

Tetrathyridium ballieti (dog, cat, fox)

Dipylidium caninum (dog 14.7-98%, cat 27.6%, fox 3.2%, wolf)

Diplopylidium nolleri (cat 57.7%)

Diplopylidium acanthotreta (cat 2.4-3.4%)

Joyeuxiella pasqualei (cat 3.4-39.8%)

Joyeuxiella echinorhynchoides (fox 24.5%, wolf)

Taenia hydatigena (dog 14%, fox 0.9%, wolf)

Taenia pisiformis (dog, jackal)

Taenia crassiceps (fox 0.3%)

Taenia taeniaeformis (cat 4%)

Taenia multiceps (dog)

Echinococcus granulosus (dog 0.2-9.1%)


Spirocerca lupi (dog 2-24%)

Ollulanus tricuspis (cat 30.1%, dog 5%)

Physaloptera praeputialis (cat 2.4%)

Toxocara canis (dog 3.7-44.7%, fox 28.6%, wolf, jackal)

Toxocara cati (cat 17.2-66.7%, wild cat)

Toxascaris leonina (cat 3.4%, fox 2.5%, dog 1.1-24.7%, wild cat)

Ancylostoma caninum  (dog 0.5-2%, fox 5.1%, jackal)

Ancylostoma tubaeforme (cat 1.7-2.4%)

Uncinaria stenocephala (dog 1.3-32.8%, fox 43.9%, wolf, jackal)

Trichostrongylus spp. (fox 0.6%)

Trichuris (syn. Trichocephalus) vulpis (dog 2.6-7.4%, fox 8%)

Capillaria hepatica (fox)

Capillaria aerophila (dog 1.6%, cat 1.6%)

Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (cat 1.6%)

Angiostrongylus vasorum (dog)

Dirofilaria immitis (dog 0.7-10%)

Capillaria plica (dog 0.5%, fox)

Capillaria felis-cati (cat 2.4%)

Trichinella spiralis (dog, jackal, fox, wild cat)

Pelodera (syn. Rhabditis) strongyloides (dog)

Pelodera (syn. Rhabditis) axei (dog)

Dirofilaria repens (dog 0.4-34%)

Dipetalonema reconditum (dog 1-16%)

Dipetalonema grassi (dog 1.1%)

Onchocerca spp. (dog)


Linguatula serrata (dog, cat 2.4%)



Demodex canis (dog)

Sarcoptes canis (dog)

Notoedres cati (cat)

Otodectes cynotis (cat 1.6%, dog)

Cheyletiella yasguri (dog)

Cheyletiella blakei (cat 2.4%)

Pneumonyssoides caninum (dog)


Ixodes ricinus (dog)

Ixodes hexagonus (dog)

Hyalomma aegyptium (dog)

Haemaphysalis sulcata (dog)

Haemaphysalis inermis (dog, fox)

Haemaphysalis punctata (dog, fox)

Rhipicephalus bursa (dog)

Rhipicephalus turanicus (dog)

Rhipicephalus sanguineus (dog)

Dermacentor marginatus (dog)

Dermacentor reticulates (dog)


Heterodoxus spiniger (dog)

Trichodectes canis (dog)

Felicola subrostratus (cat)

Linognathus setosus (dog)

Culicidae (mosquitoes)

Psychodidae (sand flies)

Simuliidae (black flies)

Ceratopogonidae (biting midges)

Stomoxys calcitrans (stable fly)

Ctenocephalides canis (dog 71.3%, cat 5.3%)

Ctenocephalides felis-felis (cat 55.3-97.4%, dog 40.3%)

Xenopsylla cheopis (cat 0.8%)

Pulex irritans (cat 0.8%)

Wohlfahrtia magnifica

Sarcophaga spp. (flesh flies)

Calliphora spp. (blowflies)

Musca domestica (house fly)

Lucilia spp. (green-bottle flies)


Rabbit, Hare


Eimeria spp. (rabbit 49%)

Eimeria exigua (rabbit 6%)

Toxoplasma gondii (hare)


Fasciola hepatica (hare)


Cysticercus pisiformis (hare)

Hydatid cysts (hare)


Passalurus ambiguus (rabbit)



Cheyletiella parasitovorax (rabbit)

Chorioptes bovis (rabbit)

Notoedres cati var. cuniculi (rabbit)


Haemodipsus ventricosus (rabbit)

Spilopsyllus cuniculi (rabbit)




Isospora rastegaievae (14%)


Fasciola hepatica

Dicrocoelium dendriticum (3.2%)

Brachylaemus erinacei (11%)

Brachylaemus migrans


Hymenolepis (syn. Vampirolepis) erinacei (33.3%)


Physaloptera clausa (64%)

Capillaria (syn. Eucoleus) tenuis (50%)

Capillaria aerophila

Crenosoma striatum (61.1%)

Acanthocephala (28%)



Hyalomma aegyptium

Haemaphysalis cinnabarina punctata



Cryptosporidium spp. (mink)

Trypanosoma spp. (rat)

Leishmania spp. (cricetus)


Hymenolepis nana (rat 14.9-33%)

Hymenolepis diminuta (rat 16.9-34.9%, mouse 2%)

Mathevotaenia symmetrica (rat 4.8%)

Cysticercus fasciolaris (rat 16.5%, mouse 11.76%)


Mastophorus muris (rat 11.6%)

Capillaria gastrica (rat 41.7%)

Capillaria annulosa (rat 26.2%)

Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, syn. N.muris (rat 5.8%)

Strongyloides ratti (rat 27.2%)

Heterakis spumosa (rat 74.7%)

Syphacia obvelata (mouse 47%)

Syphacia stroma (mouse 2%)

Syphacia muris (mouse 2%)

Aspiculuris tetraptera (mouse 2%)

Trichuris muris (rat 2%)

Capillaria hepatica (rat 9.2%)

Trichosomoides crassicauda (rat 26.2%)

Trichinella spiralis (rat 16-60%)


Moniliformis moniliformis (rat 1%)


Linguatula serrata (rat 2%)



Trixacarus caviae (guinea pig)

Radfordia ensifera (rat 25.4%)

Myobia musculi (rat 1%, mouse 11.8%)

Myocoptes musculinus (mouse 9.8%, rat)

Echinolaelaps echidninus (rat 12.6%)

Ornithonyssus bacoti (rat 11.6%)

Demodex ratti (rat 14.6%)


Hyalomma aegyptium (cricetus)


Polyplax spinulosa (rat 36%)

Phlebotomus similis (bat)

Xenopsylla cheopsis (rat 5.8-84.3%)

Nosopsyllus fasciatus (rat 2.8-23.7%)

Leptopsylla segnis (rat 1-12.5%, mouse 4%)

Ctenocephalides felis-felis (rat 0.3-7.2%)

Pulex irritans (rat 0.2%)




Giardia lamblia (fowls)

Hexamita meleagridis (turkey)

Blastocystis galli (fowls, ostrich)

Trichomonas gallinae (fowls 22.9%, pigeon)

Tetratrichomonas gallinarum (fowls, turkey, partridge, pheasant)

Isospora lacazei (canary 26.6%)

Isospora spp. (goldfinch, finch, linnet, merle)

Eimeria spp. (fowls 24.7%-37.6%, pigeon 18.2%, waterhen, guinea fowl, pheasant, vulture, eagle, ostrich)

Eimeria adenoides (turkey 19.2%)

Cryptosporidium spp. (fowls, ostrich)

Balantidium struthionis (ostrich)

Histomonas meleagridis (turkey 2%, fowls, ostrich)

Plasmodium spp. (house sparrow 49.6%)

Haemoproteus spp. (pigeon 18.2-50%, house sparrow 46-54.5%)


Tracheophilus sisowi (waterhen)

Bolbophorus spp. (pelican)

Brachylaemus commutatus (fowls 3%, turkey 0.8%)

Brachylaemus fuscatus (turkey)

Heterophyidae (sea gull, waterhen)

Notocotylus attenuatus (swan)

Echinostoma revolutum (sea gull, waterhen)

Alaria alata (sea gull, waterhen)


Davainea proglottina (fowls)

Raillietina tetragona (turkey 2.4%, fowls, guinea fowl, pigeon)

R.cesticillus (turkey 0.8%, fowls, guinea fowl)

R.echinobothrida (turkey 3.6%, fowls, pheasant)

Amoebotaenia sphenoides (fowls)

Choanotaenia infundibulum(fowls 19.5%)

Hymenolepis cariosa (turkey 0.4%)

Hymenolepis spp. (swan)

Houttuynia struthionis (ostrich)


Capillaria (syn. Eucoleus) contorta (turkey 2%, fowls, quail, partridge, pheasant, duck)

Capillaria spp. (fowls 58%, sea gull, waterhen)

Gongylonema ingluvicola (turkey 0.4%)

Cheilospirura (syn. Acuaria) hamulosa (fowls)

Dispharynx (syn. Acuaria) spiralis (turkey 0.4%, fowls, pigeon, heron)

Echinuria (syn. Acuaria) uncinata (swan, sea gull, waterhen)

Amidostomum anseris (swan)

Ascaridia galli (fowls 45.3%, turkey 2%)

Ascaridia dissimilis (turkey 12%)

Ascaridia columbae (pigeon 10.6%)

Capillaria obsignata (fowls, turkey 2%, pheasant 7.6%, pigeon 22.7-40.7%)

Capillaria caudinflata (pigeon 2.6%)

Strongyloides avium (fowls)

Trichostrongylus tenuis (turkey 2.8%, duck, partridge, pheasant)

Heterakis gallinarum (fowls 10.2%, turkey 8.8%, quail, partridge, pheasant)

Heterakis isolonche (pheasant)

Syngamus trachea (fowls, partridge, pheasant, merle)

Acanthocephala (wild duck)



Cnemidocoptes mutans (fowls, turkey)

Cnemidocoptes gallinae (fowls)

Laminosioptes cysticola (fowls)

Dermanyssus gallinae (fowls, turkey, pigeon, quail, goldfinch, finch, linnet)


Argas persicus (fowls, turkey, pheasant, guinea fowl)

Argas reflexus (pigeon)

Ixodes ricinus (partridge)

Haemaphysalis punctata (partridge)

Hyalomma marginatum (turkey 2%)


Menopon gallinae (turkey 1.2%)

Lipeurus polytrapezius (turkey 0.8%)

Chelopistes meleagridis (turkey 5.2%)

Columbicola columbae (pigeon, wild pigeon)

Menacanthus stramineus (turkey 0.4%)

Goniocotes gallinae (turkey 0.6%)

Goniocotes gigas (fowls)

Lipeurus caponis (fowls)

Cyclotogaster heterographus (fowls)